宗教之起源和基督教百年盛業

Replacing Communism with Theism is like replacing new devil with old devil.
Developer108 發表於 16-10-2010 05:51
嘩!師兄,有冇咁嚴重呀,要有理據和比較喎!我不是質疑師兄高見,可以簡單或詳細論述才合理囉!
我們不是反基督教,而是探討宗教之起源和基督教百年盛業,
人為何需要宗教。
很多暴君利用宗教統治人民,剝削了與生俱來的信仰自由。
所以問題不是在宗教本質,
宗教而是一種統治工具而矣!希望各師兄明解,人就生,事物就是死。
Replacing Communism with Theism is like replacing new devil with old devil.
Developer108 發表於 16-10-2010 05:51
I fully agree with you. However as the owner of this link says, perhaps we should stick to the subject, i.e. the origins of religion and the rise of Christianity.

想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。
本帖最後由 deusnonest 於 16-10-2010 14:44 編輯

以下文章講宗教起源,譯文請參閱24#:
Prehistoric Benefits of Religion

Approximately 80% of all people on earth are adherents of organized religions. No religion can exist without a belief in one or more gods: Supernatural beings who are claimed to be omniscient and omnipotent.

This widespread human trait makes it obvious that the need for religion-based gods is not episodic but has become imbedded in human genes. Only long-term survival factors can embed new traits into the human genome complex.

Like all explanations of human behavior, the answer to this conundrum is simple. It rests in the process of evolution: The natural law of the survival of the fittest.

A survival benefit accrued to prehistoric man as a result of the deification of those aspects of nature that he considered beyond his control: The Supernatural. Without such survival benefits, the inherently irrational belief in gods and a life after death could not have permanently imbedded itself in the human brain and genes.

In primitive societies, definite survival benefits accrue to the belief in the supernatural. Humans, who where motivated by a god or gods whom they feared and whom they were willing to obey, acted with a high degree of cooperation. Fear of punishment from their god or his priests would be a powerful force for socialized behavior.

Under these conditions, individuals subordinated their urges and passions to the commands of their gods. This coordination of activities resulted in civilized behavior and a distinct benefit for survival.

The commands of the gods, as communicated by their priests, worked to the advantage of a particular civilization and its individuals. Groups of people, held together by the glue of a religion, would thrive and would enjoy the increased efficiency and productivity resulting from increased cooperation.

Since a pre-packaged moral code is associated with all organized religions, a belief in the supernatural would also lower crime within a society. Priests or witch doctors established a moral code of conduct. The alleged supernatural powers of the gods enforced this morality system.

A fear of all-powerful gods deterred people from engaging in hostile or destructive acts against other members of their society. The resulting low-crime environment represented another distinct survival benefit within a primitive, religious society. Members of society who refused to participate in such religious rites were ostracized or eliminated and thus did not perpetuate their genes.

This congregation of a society around mutually accepted beliefs also served to reinforce its resistance to external threats, such as attacks from other tribes. By merging his resources under the promised umbrella of a Supreme Being, early man enhanced his chances of surviving attacks by other societies.

It is a well-established psychological fact that people who think alike, meet alike: Baptists congregate with Baptists and Jews congregate with Jews. By coordinating their individual activities with other persons who shared common religious beliefs, this coalescence of spiritual motivations provided for the security and survival of the members of a religious group. Religious beliefs and rites are implanted in adherents of a religion in their early youth, excluding them from rational analysis.

On the other hand, societies that had no gods and thus did not cooperate with each other as well as their god-fearing neighbors did, were disadvantaged with respect to survival. Such atheistic societies would either not come into existence, or they would not be able to compete efficiently with their devoutly religious neighbors. These early atheistic societies would fail to survive, enhancing the evolutionary propagation and predominance of those genes that compelled adherence to supernatural belief systems.

Thus, a distinct survival benefit imbedded itself into the genes of members of prehistoric societies that engaged in the worship of gods or other supernatural beings.

During the prehistoric development of man, he could rely only on his physical prowess and very primitive tools. Many millennia of environmental hardships enhanced evolutionary progress and honed the thought processes of man. He learned to rely on the power of his brain to an ever-increasing degree. Increased brainpower demonstrated the trend of evolution to increase complexity of the brain because increased complexity provides for a higher degree of specialization.

Advanced specialization provides for improved adaptability to changing environmental conditions. The development of life from a simple amoeba to the complex brain of modern man demonstrates the relentless evolutionary trend towards higher adaptability by ever-increasing complexity and specialization.
http://www.rationality.net/god.h ... onality.net/god.htm

想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。
本帖最後由 deusnonest 於 16-10-2010 14:46 編輯

23# 宗教信仰對原始社會的好處

世界上大約有八成人信奉有組織的宗教。宗教不信奉一個或多個神明的話不會存在:這些神明被描敘為無處不在、無所不能的。

這樣廣泛的行為模式很清楚顯示,人需要宗教神明不是偶然發生,而是深根蒂固種入在人類的遺傳基因內。但只有人類長久受到生死存亡因素影響才可以改變他的遺傳,加入新的行為基因。

一如解釋所有人類行為一樣,答案非常簡單。這就是進化過程:適者生存的天然定律。

把人不能控制的自然事物歸咎於超自然力量,給原始人類一個生存優勢。如果沒有這個優勢,神明、死後永生等本質上非理性的信仰不會永久潛入人類腦袋和基因之中。

在原始社會裡,相信超自然力量帶來肯定性的生存優勢。受到又敬又怕又願意追隨的神明鼓舞,人們以高度的合作態度共同進退。懼怕神明和祭司的處罰足以使他們循規蹈矩。

在此情況下,個人的私念和私慾受到神明的命令壓制。族群一致的行為引來了特有的生存優勢。

祭司們傳遞神明的命令,加強族群和成員的團結、合作。族群因而得以提高工作效率和生產。

已經包裝好了的宗教道德規條、超自然的信仰也同時減低族群內的非法行為。祭司或巫司設定了一套套的道德標準,借用所謂神明的無上法力來執行。

懼怕無所不能的神明使人們減少了族群內鬥。所達致的低犯罪環境帶給了具這些原始族群的另一個生存優勢。族群內不歸隊的個人受到排擠甚至消滅,這些人的遺傳基因當然無法繁衍。

族人團結於共同信仰的同時,加強了能力抵抗外來的威脅,例如外族的侵入。將每一個人的力量加上神明的力量同時,原始族群增加了不受外侮消滅的機會。

如眾周知,心理學說:物以類聚。浸信會人會跟浸信會的人,猶太人會跟猶太人。不同的個人聚集,只要他們有共同信仰,就可以合作。信仰維繫了整個信仰集團的穩定性和生存能力。從小加以培養的話,族群的人就不會分析宗教的信念和禮儀是否合乎理性。

相反地,不相信神明的族群不會有同樣的合群合作能力,令他們生存受到威脅。無神族群可能不會組成,或組成後不能與有神的鄰邦爭一日之長短。他們不能繼續生存,具有傾向相信超自然的人的遺傳基因,無形中得以較容易繁衍。

由此可見,傾向相信超自然的因素,很自然便會種入了原始人類的的遺傳基因裡面。

在原始人類發展過程中,人只可以依靠體能和原始工具維生。千萬年的艱辛掙扎加強了進化的過程,也塑造了人類的思維模式。人學會了凡事使用腦根。腦袋變為更複雜,更有能力,使做起事來可以更加適應環境。

高度的適應使人可以抵抗環境變遷。從簡單的變形蟲演變為極為複雜人腦的過程,顯示了進化從來未有間斷。
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想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。
樓主帶出呢個題目,一定有真知灼見,可否略說一二以增見聞?
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  • 212770


想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。
樓主帶出呢個題目,一定有真知灼見,可否略說一二以增見聞?
deusnonest 發表於 17-10-2010 02:56
探討宗教是個頗為嚴肅話題,尊重信仰是我的原則,無神論者另作別論,對我來說,無神論是個人精神主義者,以自為主,無何不可妥。
淺學之我何有心得見解,只有求知心態。
聰明而祟尚個人自由取向的倪匡,謂與天父有計傾;剛烈如毓民者亦臣服於天父名下;令我深感宗教對人類的影響,對心靈感受的重要。然而,以師兄的洞悉宗教的秘和認知,確實令人有一定的領受。師兄訴諸真理及直斥其(某教義)非,在某程度上,亦有宗教意識,無不是帶出你的修為見地。
唯物地論 , 人可能本來就是神 , 神話可能就是我們祖先的真實遺言 . 也許隨著地球的
生態變化漸漸我們就不需要太多的神力 , 對我們祖先原有的能力也不以為然. 我們攝取地球養份日子有久, 以至一代一代下去就遞減了對祖先的認識. 記憶愈變得模糊以至於只剩下一些口述殘渣.
好比時下許多年輕人聽老人家說話那樣 , 只顧眼前耍樂 , 心不在焉 , 等到長大之後老人家辭世後又追憶起老人家的片言隻語而又總不能太確定. 結果 , 人類歷史至今終難免成為一冊誤會誤解多於事實的文字大雜彙.
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終殃 淫民 共禍 正苦 仲慘
合久必分 快馬解體
探討宗教是個頗為嚴肅話題,尊重信仰是我的原則,無神論者另作別論,對我來說,無神論是個人精神主義者,以自為主,無何不可妥。
淺學之我何有心得見解,只有求知心態。
聰明而祟尚個人自由取向的倪匡,謂與天父有 ...
212770 發表於 17-10-2010 06:03
尊重信仰都係我嘅原則,正如師姐所講,信乜信物,隨緣啦!但係,如果有人不尊重他人信仰,我就唔會對佢尊重。

宗教信仰需要有一個或多個信仰嘅對象。在耶教來講係耶和華、耶穌、天主、上帝;在佛教是佛陀(不一定是神);在傳統中國是滿天神佛;在古希臘是奧林匹克仙山上眾神;在印度是梵天(Brahma)、毗濕奴(Vishnu)、濕婆(Shiva)。

無神論者確實並無任何信仰對象,好難與宗教相提並論。唯一相同者,兩者都係講宇宙人生觀嘅哲學而已。

想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。
本帖最後由 212770 於 19-10-2010 00:30 編輯

以我粗淺對宗教認知,宗教的涵義相當廣泛,定義和教義萬般不同,古代和近現代的宗旨亦大異其趣,簡單分兩大類,原始味重的超自然聖教體是以偶像形態帶領民智,約數千年如古老的拜火教和婆羅門教;近現代的宗教定義是哲學理解佔重要因素,例如孔教是由孔子學術道德為宗;儒教據傳會擠身宗教行列;道教也不是崇拜偶像的宗教。



宗教起源不詳,以我理解,人類羊群心理的驅使,冀望有族類或神靈帶領,在社族有領導天份的人當然有優勢,有過人論述就可成為精神領袖,以孔教為例。近代的毛澤東語錄亦形成紅衛兵的聖經。根據師兄上傳#24,#28的宗教遺傳基因報告,人同此心,心同此理,顯見出宗教對人類的重要性。對有獨立思考能力的人亦不能

宗教的需求。正如日理萬機的美國總統亦必須有信仰才能得到國民認同。

冥冥中,我相信有‘主’宰,以我理解的程度認為可能是很艱深莫測的邏輯,亦是不知名的原素,或所謂蝴蝶效應。



以下是各宗教學家對宗教所下的定義:

  

宗教學家

  
  

對「宗教」的詮釋

  
  門辛
  
  人與神聖真實體驗深刻的相遇、受神聖存在性影響之人的相應行為

  
  繆勒
  
  人對於無限存在物的渴求、信仰和愛慕

  
  泰勒
  
  靈性存在的信仰

  
  弗雷澤
  
  人對能夠指導和控制自然與人生進程的超人力量的迎合、討好和信奉

  
  施密特
  
  人對超世而具有人格之力的知或覺

  
  海勒爾
  
  人與神聖的交往、相通和結合,是對神聖的生動經歷

  
  范.德.列烏
  
  人與神秘力量的獨特關係

  
  奧托
  
  對超自然之神聖的體驗,表現為人對神聖既敬畏而嚮往的感情交織

  
  施萊爾馬赫
  
  宗教是人對神的絕對依賴感

  
  蒂利希
  
  宗教是人的終極關切

  

本帖最後由 deusnonest 於 19-10-2010 05:33 編輯

中譯見 47#

Excerpt from Wikipedia - Religion
Religion is the belief in and worship of a god or gods, or a set of beliefs concerning the origin and purpose of the universe. It is commonly regarded as consisting of a person’s relation to God or to gods or spirits. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories associated with their deity or deities, that are intended to give meaning to life. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature.

The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system, but it is more than private belief and has a public aspect. Most religions have organised behaviors, congregations for prayer, priestly hierarchies, holy places and scriptures. ...
Some symbols representing various world religions, from left to right:
row 1: Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism
row 2: Islam, Buddhism, Shinto
row 3: Sikhism, Bahai, Jainism

想當年,只得當年想;望明天,方有明天望。